javax.servlet package

The javax.servlet package is a fundamental part of the Java Servlet API. It is now renamed to jakarta.servlet. It defines the standard for developing Java-based web applications. Servlets are Java classes that extend the functionality of web servers to handle client requests and generate dynamic responses. The javax.servlet package provides classes and interfaces that servlet developers use to interact with the web container (such as Tomcat or Jetty).

Following are some key components and concepts within the javax.servlet (now jakarta.servlet) package:

  1. Servlet Interface (javax.servlet.Servlet):
    • The Servlet interface is a core interface that servlets must implement. It defines methods for servlet initialization, request handling, and cleanup. Servlets, by implementing this interface, become capable of handling HTTP requests and generating dynamic content.
  2. ServletRequest and ServletResponse Interfaces:
    • The ServletRequest and ServletResponse interfaces represent the client’s request and the servlet’s response, respectively. Servlets use these interfaces to obtain information about the request and send responses back to the client.
  3. HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse Interfaces:
    • These interfaces extend ServletRequest and ServletResponse, respectively, providing additional methods specific to HTTP requests and responses. They include functionality for handling parameters, headers, and cookies.
  4. ServletConfig Interface (javax.servlet.ServletConfig):
    • The ServletConfig interface represents the configuration of a servlet. It provides methods for servlets to retrieve initialization parameters, allowing them to customize their behavior.
  5. ServletContext Interface (javax.servlet.ServletContext):
    • The ServletContext interface represents the servlet context, which is shared across servlets within the same web application. It provides a way for servlets to share information, such as attributes, and access resources within the application.
  6. RequestDispatcher Interface (javax.servlet.RequestDispatcher):
    • The RequestDispatcher interface enables servlets to forward requests to other servlets or resources, or to include the content of another resource in the response.
  7. GenericServlet Class (javax.servlet.GenericServlet):
    • The GenericServlet class is an abstract class that provides a default implementation of the Servlet interface. Servlets can extend this class to simplify their implementation.
  8. HttpServlet Class (javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet):
    • The HttpServlet class, extending GenericServlet, provides additional methods for handling HTTP-specific requests. Servlets that deal specifically with HTTP methods, such as doGet and doPost, can extend this class.
  9. Annotations (e.g., @WebServlet):
    • The Java Servlet API supports annotations to configure servlets. For example, the @WebServlet annotation can be used to declare a servlet and its mapping directly in the source code.

The javax.servlet package serves as the foundation for building dynamic and interactive web applications in Java. It defines the standard interface and classes that servlet developers utilize to create server-side logic for handling HTTP requests and generating dynamic content.